Commons:Unprotected works

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Unprotected works are works that by their nature do not qualify for copyright protection, as opposed to works for which copyright has been waived or has expired.

Copyright rules vary from country to country. Unprotected works may include some types of work made by or for the government such as laws, regulations, standards, legal judgements, state symbols, stamps, currency and so on. They may also include other types of work such as ideas, facts, scientific formulas, news events and folklore. There may be non-copyright restrictions on the ways in which unprotected works can be used.

This project page clarifies which types of work are unprotected on a country-by-country basis. It contains information "transcluded" from pages that describe the relevant rules for each country. Click on the lower menu to the right for complete lists of all countries in each region (Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Oceania, Other) including countries for which no types of unprotected work have been defined.

Alphabetical list[edit]

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COM:NOP Abkhazia

Abkhazia

Under the 2006 Law on Copyright and Related Rights the following are not objects of copyright[2006 Art.8]:

  • official documents (laws, court decisions, other texts of legislative, administrative and judicial nature), as well as their official translations;
  • state symbols and signs (flags, emblems, orders, bank notes and other state symbols and signs);
  • works of folk art;
  • messages about events and facts of informational nature.
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COM:NOP Albania

Albania

Under Law No. 35/2016 of March 31, 2016, on Copyright and Related Rights, the following are not protected by copyright: a. ideas, theories, concepts, discoveries and inventions of creative work, regardless of the method of interpretation, justification or expression; b. discoveries, official texts in the domain of legislation, administrative and judiciary and other official works and their collections, disclosed for the purpose of officially informing the public; c. official state symbols, symbols of organizations and public authorities, such as: the arms, the seal, the flag, the emblem, the medallion, the hallmark, the medal; ç. means of payment; d. news of the day and other news, having the character of mere items of press information; dh. Simple data and facts.[35/2016 Article 12.1]

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COM:NOP Algeria

Algeria

  • Protection shall not include ideas, concepts, principles, approaches, techniques, working procedures and patterns associated with intellectual work creation themselves, except to the extent they are enlisted, structured or arranged in the protected work, and in the format expression independent of their description, interpretation or clarification.[Law of 2003, Art.7]
  • State works, legally made available for public use in non-profit generating purposes, may be freely used subject to maintaining the work wellbeing and highlighting its source. State works, within the context of this article, shall mean works produced and published by various state institutions, local groups and public establishments of administrative nature.[Law of 2003, Art.9]
  • Approved protection of copyrights provided for herein shall not be granted to administrative laws, regulations, resolutions and administrative contracts issued by the state institutions, local groups, justice rulings and the official translation of these texts.[Law of 2003, Art.11]
  • The ideas contained in literary and artistic works, the ideological or technical content of scientific works, and their industrial or commercial exploitation are not subject to protection.[1993 Article 7]

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COM:NOP Andorra

Andorra

  • Copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work.[1999 Art. 4(1)]
  • No protection shall extend under this law to any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof.[1999 Art. 4(2)]
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COM:NOP Anguilla

Anguilla

  • No protection shall extend under this Act to (a) any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work; or (b) any official text of administrative or legal nature or to any official translation thereof.[C120-2002 Sec.4(1)]
  • In paragraph (1)(b), “official text of administrative or legal nature” does not include an Act of the Legislature of Anguilla or a regulation under such an Act.[C120-2002 Sec.4(2)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Armenia

Armenia

  • The following works not subject to copyright: a) works of folklore and folk art; b) information about the news of the day or current events and facts; c) official documents - legal acts, contracts and their official translations; d) state symbols and signs (flags, emblems, orders, bank notes and so on); e) political speeches, speeches made during the trial; f) results obtained by technical means without human creative activity.[2013 Article 4.1]
  • Copyright does not apply to scientific discoveries, ideas, principles, methods, procedures, concepts, systems, processes, scientific theories, mathematical formulas, statistical diagrams, rules of the game, even if they are expressed, described, disclosed, covered in works.[2013 Article 4.2]
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COM:NOP Aruba

Aruba

No copyright protection is granted on:

  • Laws, decrees and regulations issued by the public authorities.[2003 Article 11]
  • Court-sentences and/or administrative rulings.[2003 Article 11]
  • Any other work published by the public authorities, except in those events of reserved rights, be it in general by laws, decrees, or regulations, or in a specific case showed by a statement on the work itself or at its publication.[2003 Article 11]
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COM:NOP Austria

Austria

Under the 'Federal Law on Copyright 1936 as amended up to 2018,

  • Laws, regulations, official decrees, official notices and decisions and official works as defined in §2Z itesm 1 or 3, solely or mainly produced for official use. shall not enjoy copyright protection.[1936-2018 Art.7(1)]
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COM:NOP Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

The following items are not objects of copyright:

  • Official documents (laws, court decisions, other texts of legislative, administrative or judicial character) and their official translations;
  • State emblems and official signs (flags, arms, anthems, orders, monetary signs and other State symbols and official signs);
  • Folk creativity (folklore) expressions ;
  • News of day, data about various events and the facts of information character.[636-IVQD/2013 Article 7]
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COM:NOP Bahrain

Bahrain

Protection is not accorded to: (a) Mere ideas, procedures, working methods, mathematical concepts, principles, discoveries or data, (b) Legislation, judgements and judicial decrees, the judgement of arbitrators, decisions issued by administrative committees possessing judicial prerogatives, international treaties and all other official documents and official translations thereof, (c) News of current affairs when of a purely informative nature. Nevertheless, collections of the above elements do enjoy protection if creativity exists in the selection or arrangement of the contents.[22/2006 Article 4]

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COM:NOP Belarus

Belarus

According to the Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 262-Z of May 17, 2011,

  • The following are not deemed objects of copyright: official documents (legal acts, court decisions, other administrative and court documents, constituent documents of legal entities) and their official translations; State symbols of the Republic of Belarus (State Flag of the Republic of Belarus, State Emblem of the Republic of Belarus, State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus), symbols of state decorations of the Republic of Belarus (orders and medals), state signs (paper currency of the Republic of Belarus, post stamps and other signs), official heraldry symbols (flags, emblems of administration divisions of the Republic of Belarus, heraldry signs, colours, badges, emblems of state authorities etc.); works of folk art which authors are unknown.[262-Z/2011 Art.7(2)]
  • Copyright shall not cover ideas, methods, processes, systems, ways, conceptions, principles, discoveries, facts even if they are expressed, presented, explained or implemented in works.[262-Z/2011 Art.7(2)]
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COM:NOP Benin

Benin

Works that are not protected are.[2006 Art.9]:

  • Official texts of a legislative, administrative or judicial nature or to the official translations thereof;
  • The news of the day;
  • Ideas, processes, systems, methods of operation, concepts, principles, discoveries or simple data, even if they are set out, described, explained, illustrated or incorporated in a work
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Bhutan

Bhutan

Protection does not apply to any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof.[2001 Section 7]

There is no copyright protection for: ideas, concepts, procedures, work methods, mathematical operations; official texts in the domain of legislation, administration and judiciary (laws, regulations, decisions, reports, minutes, judgments and alike); political speeches and speeches made at court hearings; daily news or miscellaneous information having the character of mere items of press information; folk literary and artistic creations.[2010 Article 8]

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COM:NOP Botswana

Botswana

Under Act 6 of 2006, no protection shall extend to (a) any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work; (b) any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof; (c) a broadcast which infringes, or to the extent that it infringes, the copyright in another broadcast or in a cable programme; or (d) a sound recording or film which is, or to the extent that it is, a copy of a previous sound recording or film.[2006 Section 6.2]

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COM:NOP Bulgaria

Bulgaria

The following are not considered subject matter of copyright:[2011 Article 4]

  1. normative and individual acts of state government bodies and official translations thereof;
  2. ideas and concepts;
  3. works of folklore;
  4. news, facts, information and data.

In particular, this applies to various documents, e.g. certificates, issued by units of the Bulgarian armed forces, including historical ones, like the Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps (MAVC). In these cases it is advisable to use appropriate “author” templates if such exist, e.g. {{Author-MAVC}} for MAVC.

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COM:NOP Burundi

Burundi

Copyright protection shall not apply to: (a) acts, legal decisions and decisions of administrative bodies and the official translations of such texts, or daily news published, broadcast or communicated in public; (b) ideas, procedures, systems, methods of operation, concepts, principles, discoveries or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work.[Act 1/021 2005 Article 7]

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COM:NOP Cambodia

Cambodia

The following works shall not have under any protection by this law: a- Constitution, Law, Royal Decree, Sub-Decree, and other Regulations; b- Proclamation (Prakas), decision, certificate, other instructed circulars issued by state organizations; Court decision or other court warrants; d- translation of the materials mentioned in the preceding paragraphs; e- Idea, formality, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained or embodied in any work.[2003 Article 10]

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COM:NOP Cameroon

Cameroon

Laws, court judgments and other official instruments, as well as their official translations, coats of arms, decorations, currency marks and other official insignia are not protected by copyright.[2000/011 Section 3(4)]

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COM:NOP Cape Verde

Cape Verde

The following are not protected: (a) news of the day and reports of different events given simply for information, however disclosed: (b) laws and rulings of judicial and administrative bodies, as well as petitions, allegations, complaints and other texts submitted to public authorities or services; (c) political speeches, except when assembled in a volume by their authors; (d) simple facts and data; (e) ideas, processes, systems, operational methods, concerts, principles or discoveries, in themselves and as such.[2009 Article.10]

Article 10 of the 1985 law states that protection does not apply to laws, judicial or administrative decisions or official translations of these texts, or to news of the day published, broadcast by radio or television, or communicated in public.[85.002 Article 10]

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COM:NOP Chile

Chile

The common cultural heritage includes.[17.336/2017 Art.11]:

a) Works whose term of protection has been extinguished;
b) Work of an unknown author, including the songs, legends, dances and expressions of the folkloric heritage;
c) Works whose owners waived the protection granted by this law;
d) Works of foreign authors, domiciled abroad that are not protected by international conventions that Chile subscribes to and ratifies;
e) Works that were expropriated by the State, unless the law specifies a beneficiary.

Works of common cultural heritage may be used by anyone, provided that paternity and the integrity of the work is respected.

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COM:NOP China

China

According to the 2020 Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China, this Law shall not be applicable to: (1) laws, regulations, resolutions, decisions and orders of state organs; other documents of legislative, administrative or judicial nature; and their official translations; (2) simple factual information; and (3) calendars, numerical tables, forms of general use and formulas.[2020 Art.5]

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COM:NOP Cook Islands

Cook Islands

  • The definition of "work" does not include any work that is an official text, or a translation, of a legislative, administrative, or legal nature.[8/2013 Sec.3(work)]
  • Copyright does not exist in any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery, or data expressed, described, explained, illustrated, or otherwise embodied in a work.[8/2013 Sec.7(4)]
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COM:NOP Croatia

Croatia

Based on the Copyright and Related Rights Act amended up to 127/2014,

  • The subject matter of copyright shall include expressions and not ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such.[127/2014 Article 8(1)]
  • The subject matter of copyright shall not include:
    • discoveries, official texts in the domain of legislation, administration, judiciary (acts, regulations, decisions, reports, minutes, judgments, standards, and the like) and other official works and their collections, disclosed for the purpose of officially informing the public;[127/2014 Article 8(2.1)]
    • news of the day and other news, having the character of mere items of press information;[127/2014 Article 8(2.2)]
  • Folk literary and artistic creations in their original form shall not be the subject matter of copyright, but their communication to the public is subject to the payment of remuneration, as for the communication to the public of protected copyright works. The remuneration shall be the revenue of the budget, and shall be used for improving the creativity in the field concerned.[127/2014 Article 8(3)]
  • Translations of official texts in the domain of legislation, administration and judiciary, shall be protected, unless made for the purpose of officially informing the public and are disclosed as such.[127/2014 Article 6(2)]

Under the Consolidated Version of Act No. 121/2000 Coll. as amended up to 216/2006, copyright protection shall not apply to:

  • An official work, such as a legal regulation, decision, public charter, publicly accessible register and collection of its documents, and also any official draft of an official work and other preparatory official documentation including the official translation of such work, Chamber of Deputies and Senate publications, a memorial chronicle of a municipality (municipal chronicles), a state symbol and symbol of a municipality, and any other such works where there is public interest in their exclusion from copyright protection.[121/2000–2006 Art.3(a)]
  • Creations of traditional folk culture, unless the real name of the author is commonly known and the works are anonymous or pseudonymous; such works may only be used in a way that shall not detract from their value.[121/2000–2006 Art.3(b)]
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COM:NOP Denmark

Denmark

Under the Consolidated Act No. 1144 of 23 October 2014: Acts, administrative orders, legal decisions and similar official documents are not subject to copyright. This does not apply to works appearing as independent contributions in these documents, but such works may be reproduced in connection with the documents.[1144/2014 Art.9]

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COM:NOP Ecuador

Ecuador

{{PD-EC-exempt}}. The following shall not be protected: ... legal and regulatory provisions, judicial decisions, and instruments, agreements, deliberations and rulings of public bodies, and also the official translations thereof.[2006­-13 Art.10]

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COM:NOP Estonia

Estonia

Under the Copyright Act of 11 November 1992 (consolidated text of February 1, 2017), copyright does not apply to ideas, images, notions, theories, processes, systems, methods, concepts, principles, discoveries, inventions, and other results of intellectual activities which are described, explained or expressed in any other manner in a work; works of folklore; legislation and administrative documents (acts, decrees, regulations, statutes, instructions, directives) and official translations thereof; court decisions and official translations thereof; official symbols of the state and insignia of organisations (flags, coats of arms, orders, medals, badges, etc.); news of the day; facts and data; ideas and principles which underlie any element of a computer program, including those which underlie its user interfaces.[1992/2017 §5]

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COM:NOP Fiji

Fiji

Under the Copyright Act, 1999, no copyright exists in any of the following works:

(a) any Bill introduced into the House of Representatives; (b) any Act as defined in the Interpretation Act (Cap 7); (c) any subsidiary legislation as defined in the Interpretation Act (Cap 7); (d) the debates of the Parliament of the Fiji Islands; (e) a report of a Royal Commission, Commission of Inquiry, ministerial inquiry or statutory inquiry; (f) a judgment of any court or tribunal.[1999 Section 27(1] This applies to works made before or after this Act comes into force.[1999 Section 27(2]

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COM:NOP Finland

Finland

Under the Copyright Act 404/1961, with amendments up to 608/2015, there shall be no copyright:[404/1961–2015 Sec.9(1)]

  • In laws and decrees;
  • In resolutions, stipulations and other documents which are published under the Act on the Statutes of Finland (188/2000) and the Act on the Regulations of Ministries and other Government Authorities (189/2000);
  • Treaties, conventions and other corresponding documents containing international obligations;
  • Decisions and statements issued by public authorities or other public bodies;
  • Translations of documents referred to above made by or commissioned by public authorities or other public bodies.

The textual, and in many cases the graphical, representations of Finnish coat of arms of municipalities, regions and provinces are considered to be part of decisions of public bodies and therefore they are not protected by copyright. According to the opinions of the Finnish Copyright Council even the graphical representation is thought (at least in these cases) not to be protected by copyright.[1][2]

Either the graphical representations were part of the decisions of the municipalities (whether they could be considered works of art was thought to be irrelevant), or the alterations made did not meet the requirements for an original work of art. The coats of arms of historical provinces and other historical coats of arms are not protected by copyright: if there has been any copyright, it has expired.

Coats of arms of new entities should be analysed on a case-by-case basis. Usually they are based on old coats of arms and not eligible, but there is no guarantee unless they are included in public decisions. Some unofficial coats of arms, e.g. for former municipalities, which never had official coats of arms, are private creations under copyright, provided they reach the threshold of originality.

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COM:NOP Gabon

Gabon

Under Law No. 1/87 of 1987, Protection shall not apply: to laws and regulations and officially published preparatory work therefor, decisions of the courts and of administrative bodies and official translations of such texts;the news of the day published, diffused or communicated to the public.[1/1987 Article 11]

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COM:NOP Georgia

Georgia

Under the Copyright Laws as of 2017, "The following shall not be protected by copyright: a) official documents (legislative acts, court decisions, other texts of administrative and regulatory nature), as well as their official translations; b) official state symbols (flags, coats-of-arms, anthems, rewards, banknotes, other state symbols and insignia); c) information about facts and events".[2112-IIS/2017 Article 8]

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COM:NOP Germany

Germany

Under § 5(1) of the 1965 Act on Copyright and Related Rights (Gesetz über Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte) (UrhG), acts, statutory instruments, official decrees and official notices, decisions, and official headnotes of decisions do not enjoy copyright protection.

The fuzziest element within this enumeration is perhaps the fourth, "official notices" (amtliche Bekanntmachungen). According to the Federal Court of Justice, such notices need to have "regulatory substance"—the provision is not intended to render unprotected "merely informatory expressions by an administrative body".[3] More broadly, the Court held that § 5(1) as a whole applies only to works that contain a "normative or individual legal stipulation" (normative oder einzelfallbezogene rechtliche Regelung) for only in this case there is a "sufficient public interest in the distribution to justify the exception from copyright with no strings attached".[4] "Decisions" are decisions by federal or state courts or administrative authorities that, as judgements, court orders, official ordinances, etc, contain legally binding stipulations.[5]

An important question for this project is whether § 5(1) is capable of applying to all types of works. A 2012 decision by the Berlin Regional Court (which has garnered some attention by users of this project as the lawsuit was brought against the Wikimedia Foundation) followed some academic and non-judicial commentators in holding that § 5(1) applies exclusively to literary works (Sprachwerke).[6] This view has been criticised by others who have pointed out that official decrees, decisions, etc may very well contain other types of works and that it would defeat the purpose of § 5(1) if these all had to be removed prior to publication.[7]

The prevailing view is that § 5(1) does not apply to currency (notes and coins),[8] postage stamps,[9] or official coats of arms (although the latter thus far have not nearly received as much academic—let alone judicial—attention).[10] Those who deem § 5(1) applicable to non-literary works mostly agree that the provision applies to land-use plans (Bebauungspläne) pursuant to § 8(1) of the Federal Building Code (Baugesetzbuch), which contain legally binding designations for urban development,[11] as well as to official road signs.[12] Most maps and plans originating in government, however, do not qualify for sub-§ 1 but either for sub-2 (see below) or are not considered "official works" at all. According to the Federal Court of Justice, for instance, topographic maps issued by the state offices for survey are not official works under copyright law.[13]

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COM:NOP Greece

Greece

Under Law No. 2121/1993 as amended up to Law No. 4531/2018, there is no copyright protection for official texts expressive of the authority of the State, notably legislative, administrative or judicial texts, nor for expressions of folklore, news information or simple facts and data.[2121/2018 Article 2.5]

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COM:NOP Grenada

Grenada

No protection shall extend under this Act to ... any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof.[21/2011 Section 7(1b)].

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COM:NOP Haiti

Haiti

The following are not protected:

  • Official texts of a legislative, administrative or judiciary nature, and their official translations.[2005 Article 5(1)]
  • News of the day.[2005 Article 5(2)]
  • Ideas, processes, systems, methods of operation, concepts, principles, discoveries or simple data, even if these are stated, described, explained. illustrated or incorporated in a work.[2005 Article 5(3)]
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COM:NOP Hungary

Hungary

Under the Act No. LXXVI of 1999, updated to 2019, the following works do not enjoy copyright protection:

  • Laws, other legal instruments of public administration, court or authority decisions, official or other official communications and documents, and standards and other similar provisions made by law.[LXXVI/1999-2019 Art.1(4)]
  • Facts or daily news that are the basis for press releases.[LXXVI/1999-2019 Art.1(5)]
  • An idea, principle, concept, procedure, operating method, or mathematical operation.[LXXVI/1999-2019 Art.1(6)]
  • The expression of folklore. This provision does not affect the copyright protection of the author of an individual, original work inspired by folk art.[LXXVI/1999-2019 Art.1(7)]
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COM:NOP Indonesia

Indonesia

2014 Copyright Law is based on Dutch law and retains the same distinction between works with "no copyright" and works that may be used "without infringement of Copyright".

According to Article 42, the following works have no copyright: result of open meetings of State institutions; laws and regulations; State speeches or speeches of government officials; court decisions or judge provisions; scriptures or religious symbols. These works are in the public domain and should be tagged with {{PD-IDNoCopyright}}.

According to Article 43, Acts that are not considered as Copyright infringements include:

  • Publication, Distribution, Communication, and/or Reproduction of State emblems and national anthem in accordance with their original nature; [28/2014 Article 43(a)]
  • Any Publication, Distribution, Communication, and/or Reproduction executed by or on behalf of the government, unless stated to be protected by laws and regulations, a statement to such Works, or when Publication, Distribution, Communication, and/or Reproduction to such Works are made. [28/2014 Article 43(b)]
  • Taking of actual news, either in whole or in part from a news agency, Broadcasting Organization, and newspaper or other similar sources provided that the source is fully cited; [28/2014 Article 43(c)]
  • Production and distribution of the Copyrighted content through information technology and communication media that are not commercial and/or lucrative for the Author or related parties, or the Author expresses no objection to the manufacture and dissemination in question. [28/2014 Article 43(d)]
  • Reproduction, Publication, and/or Distribution of Portraits of the President, Vice President, former Presidents, former Vice Presidents, National Heroes, heads of State institutions, heads of ministries/non-ministerial government agencies, and/or the heads of regions by taking into account the dignity and appropriateness in accordance with the provisions of laws and regulations. [28/2014 Article 43(e)]

These works may be uploaded to Commons and tagged with {{PD-IDGov}}. However, please note that it has not been determined if modifications or derivatives can be made to works enumerated in Article 43 (Please read the Commons discussion on the issue here).

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COM:NOP Iraq

Iraq

Under the 1971 law the following are not protected:[3/1971 Art. 6]

  1. Anthologies of poetry, prose, music and other collections, without prejudice to the rights of the author of each work.
  2. Collections of works that have fallen into the public domain.
  3. Collections of official documents such as texts of laws, regulations, international agreements, judicial rulings, and other official documents.

The aforementioned group enjoys protection if it is distinguished due to innovation, arrangement, or any other personal effort that deserves protection.

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COM:NOP Israel

Israel

  • Copyright in a work as stated in section 4 [original works which are literary works, artistic works, dramatic works or musical works, sound recordings] shall not extend to any of the following, however it shall extend to their expression: (1) Ideas; (2) Procedures and methods of operation; (3) Mathematical concepts; (4) Facts or data; (5) News of the day.[2007-2011 Sec.5]
  • Notwithstanding the provisions of section 4, copyright shall not subsist in statutes, regulations, Knesset Protocols and judicial decisions of the courts or of any other government entities having judicial authority according to law.[2007-2011 Sec.6]
  • Notwithstanding the provisions of section 4, copyright shall not subsist in "designs" as defined in the Patents and Designs Ordinance unless the design is not used, nor intended for use in industrial manufacture.[2007-2011 Sec.7]
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COM:NOP Ivory Coast

Côte d'Ivoire

Protection does not extend to ideas, methods, procedures, concepts or information; official texts of a legislative, administrative or judicial nature, nor to their official translations; simple data and facts.[2016-555 Article 10]

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COM:NOP Japan

Japan

Under the Copyright Act (Act No. 48 of May 6, 1970, as amended up to Act No. 35 of May 14, 2014) the following are not eligible for copyright.[35/1970-2014 Art. 13]

  1. the Constitution and other laws and regulations;
  2. public notices, instructions, circular notices and the like issued by organs of the State or local public entities, incorporated administrative agencies ... or local incorporated administrative agencies ...;
  3. judgments, decisions, orders and decrees of courts, as well as rulings and judgments made by government agencies in proceedings of a quasi-judicial nature;
  4. translations and compilations prepared by organs of the State or local public entities, incorporated administrative agencies or local incorporated administrative agencies of [any of] the materials listed in the preceding three items.
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COM:NOP Jordan

Jordan

Under the Copyright Protection Law 22 of 1992, as amended up to 2005, there is no copyright protection for laws, regulations, judicial decisions, administrative committee decisions, international agreements and other official documents and translations of these works; news published, broadcast or delivered publicly; and works that have become public property.

National folklore is considered public property.[22/2005 Article 7]

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COM:NOP Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

The following shall not be copyright objects: 1) official documents (laws, court decisions, other texts of legislative, administrative,

judicial, and diplomatic nature), and their official translations; 2) state emblems and signs (flags, emblems, decorations, banknotes, and other state symbols and signs); 3) works of folklore; 4) messages about events and facts which are of informational nature.[419/2015 Article 8]

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COM:NOP Kosovo

Kosovo

The following works do not have copyright protection and are thus in the public domain[2004/45 Art.12]:

  • Ideas, principles, instructions, procedures, discoveries and mathematical concepts per se.
  • Official laws, rules and other regulations.
  • Official material and publications of parliamentary, governmental and other organizations with powers of public office.
  • Official translations of regulations and other official materials, as well as international agreements and other instruments.
  • Applications and other acts in administrative and court procedures.
  • Official materials published for the information of the public.
  • Expressions of folklore.
  • News of the day and various information which have the character of usual press reports.
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COM:NOP Kuwait

Kuwait

The protection prescribed in accordance with the provisions of this Law shall not apply to the following:[75/2019 Article 4]

  1. Ideas, procedures, working methods, methods of operation, concepts of mathematics, principles, abstract facts, discoveries and data, even if expressed, described or described in a workbook.
  2. Official texts of a legislative, administrative or judicial nature os well as their translation.
  3. Daily news or events that are just press information.
  4. Heavenly books and lines used in writing (drawing) and recitation and recording recitation.
  5. Speeches as well as pleadings during judicial proceedings.
  6. Single words, short phroses, lists of components, symbols and familiar designs. Protection shall apply to the sum of the foregoing if its collection is characterized by innovation in ranking, display or classification without the protection of the content provided.
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COM:NOP Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan

Law No. 6 as of 2017 states that the following works are not subject to copyright[2017 Article 8]:

  • Official documents (laws, regulations, decisions, etc.), as well as their official translations;
  • Official symbols and signs (flags, emblems, medals, monetary signs, etc.);
  • Works of folk art;
  • Regular press information that constitute the daily news or information on current events;
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COM:NOP Laos

Laos

The following are ineligible for copyright protection: 1. News of the day or miscellaneous facts having the character of mere items of press information; 2. Ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such; 3. Official texts of a legislative, administrative and legal nature, and official translations of such texts.[38/NA/2017 Article 94]

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COM:NOP Latvia

Latvia

Under the Copyright Law of 2000 (as amended up to June 14, 2017), the following are not protected by copyright:

  • laws and regulations and administrative rulings, other documents issued by State and local government institutions and court adjudications (laws, court judgements, decisions and other official documents), as well as official translations of such texts and official consolidated versions;[2000-2017 Sec.6(1)]
  • State approved, as well as internationally recognised official symbols and signs (flags, coats of arms, anthems, and awards), the use of which is subject to specific laws and regulations;[2000-2017 Sec.6(2)]
  • maps, the preparation and use of which are determined by laws and regulations;[2000-2017 Sec.6(3)]
  • information provided in the press, radio or television broadcasts or other information media concerning news of the day and various facts and events;[2000-2017 Sec.6(4)]
  • ideas, methods, processes and mathematical concepts.[2000-2017 Sec.6(5)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Lebanon

Lebanon

The following shall be excluded from the protection provided by this Law: laws, legislative decrees, decrees and decisions issued by all public authorities and official translations thereof; judicial decisions of all kinds and official translations thereof; speeches delivered in public assemblies and meetings. The authors of speeches and presentations shall enjoy the sole right of collecting and publishing such lectures and presentations; ideas, data and abstract scientific facts; artistic folkloric works of all kinds. However, works inspired by folklore shall enjoy protection.[75/1999 Article 4]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Libya

Libya

According to Libyan Law No. 9 for 1968, the following works are not subject to copyright, if they are not characterized by innovation, arrangement or any other personal effort worthy of protection[9/1968 Article 4]:

  • A collection made up of various works such as verse, prose and music anthologies and other collections. However, each individual work making up the collection is copyrighted.
  • A collection of work that has become public property.
  • A collection of official documents such as texts of laws, decrees, regulations, international agreements, legal judgements and various official documents.
  • Official documents such as texts of laws, decrees, regulations, international agreements, legal judgements and various official documents.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Under the 1999 Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights, amended 2006, the following are not protected:

a) laws, regulations, international treaties and other official instruments; b) means of payment; c) decisions, records and reports of authorities and public administrations; d) patents, and published patent applications. Also not protected are official or legally required collections and translations of the above works.[1999-2006 Art.5]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Lithuania

Lithuania

Under Law No. VIII-1185 of 1999, as amended up to Law No. XII-1183 of 2014, the following are not subject to copyright:

  • ideas, procedures, processes, systems, methods of operation, concepts, principles, discoveries or mere data;[1999–2014 Art.5.1]
  • legal acts, official documents texts of administrative, legal or regulative nature (decisions, rulings, regulations, norms, territorial planning and other official documents), as well as their official translations;[1999–2014 Art.5.2]
  • official State symbols and insignia (flags, coat-of-arms, anthems, banknote designs, and other State symbols and insignia) the protection of which is regulated by other legal acts;[1999–2014 Art.5.3]
  • officially registered drafts of legal acts;[1999–2014 Art.5.4]
  • regular information reports on events;[1999–2014 Art.5.5]
  • folklore works.[1999–2014 Art.5.6]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Macau

Macau

According to Decree-Law No. 43/99/M of August 16, 1999, on the Regime of Copyright and Related Rights (as amended by Law No. 5/2012 of April 10, 2012), the following are not subject to protection: a) The news of the day and the reports of various events for the sake of simple information,

in any case disclosed; (b) applications, claims, complaints and other documents submitted in writing or orally before public authorities or services; c) The texts presented and the speeches delivered to assemblies or other bodies collegiate, political and administrative matters, or in public debates on matters of common interest; d) Political speeches.[43/99/M/2012 Article 5.1]

Official works do not enjoy protection. Official texts, among others, are the texts of conventions, laws, regulations and reports or decisions of any authorities, as well as their translations.[43/99/M/2012 Article 6]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Maldives

Maldives

Under the The Copyright & Related Rights Act (Law 23 of 2010), no protection shall extend to: (a) any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work; and (b) any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation of such documents.[23/2010 Section 6]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Mexico

Mexico

Under the 1996 copyright law as of 2018, the following are not protected,[1996-2018 Art.14]

  • I. Ideas, formulas, solutions, concepts, methods, systems, principles, discoveries, processes and inventions of any kind;
  • II. Industrial or commercial use of the ideas contained in the works;
  • III. Schemes, plans or rules to perform mental acts, games or business;
  • IV. Letters, digits or isolated colors, unless their stylization is such that they become original drawings;
  • V. Names and titles or isolated phrases;
  • VI. Simple formats or blank forms to be filled with any type of information, as well as their instructions;
  • VII. Reproductions or imitations, without authorization, of shields, flags or emblems of any country, state, municipality or equivalent political division, or denominations, acronyms, symbols or emblems of international governmental, non-governmental organizations, or of any other officially recognized organization as well as the verbal designation of the same;
  • VIII. Legislative, regulatory, judicial administrative texts, as well as their official translations. If they are published, they must adhere to the official text and will not confer exclusive editing rights; however, the concordances, interpretations, comparative studies, annotations, commentaries and other similar works that entail, on the part of their author, the creation of an original work will be object of protection;
  • IX. The informative content of the news, but its form of expression, and
  • X. Information of common use such as proverbs, sayings, legends, facts, calendars and metric scales.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Moldova

Moldova

Under Law No. 139 of 2010 as amended in 2016, copyright protection does not extend to:[139/2010-16 Art.8]

  • legal acts, other administrative, political or judicial acts (laws, court decisions), or to the official translations thereof;
  • state emblems and official signs (flags, armorial bearings, decorations, monetary signs, etc.);
  • folklore expressions;
  • daily news and facts of simple informational nature.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Monaco

Monaco

Laws, ordinances, orders, decisions and administrative, judicial or official publications do not benefit from copyright protection.[491/1948 Art.38]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Mongolia

Mongolia

The following works shall not be protected by copyright: texts of laws and other legal acts; administrative decisions and official documents of legal entities and organizations; court decisions, resolutions, judge’s decrees, other documents and speeches delivered during court hearings; translation of the above documents; coats of arms, banners, flags, awards, orders and medals; any news or information with facts and figures for the purpose of reporting the current events and results thereof; works of folklore and national traditions; any ideas, methods, procedures, scientific discoveries and mathematical concepts.[2006 Article 8]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Montenegro

Montenegro

Copyright protection does not cover: 1) ideas, principles and discoveries; 2) Official texts in the field of the legislation, administrative and judicial;

3) an official translation of point 2 above; 4) The term traditional culture (hereinafter referred to as works of folklore); 5) daily news or other information having the character of mere items of press information.[53/2016 Art.8]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Morocco

Morocco

Works that fit the following criteria are not protected under Moroccan copyright law:

  • (a) official texts of a legislative, administrative or judicial nature, nor to their official translations;
  • (b) current events;
  • (c) ideas, processes, systems, operating methods, concepts, principles, discoveries or simple data, even if these are stated, described, explained, illustrated or incorporated in a work."[1-00-20 Art.8]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Nepal

Nepal

Copyright protection under this Act shall not be extended to any thought, religion, news, method of operation, concept, principle, court judgment, administrative decision, folksong, folktale, proverb and general data despite the fact that such matters are expressed or explained or interpreted or included in any work.[8/2002 Section 4]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Netherlands

Netherlands

Dutch laws and legal judgments are completely free of copyright (Article 11 of Dutch copyright law of 1912).

In principle all works communicated to the public by or on behalf of the public authorities (government) may be freely distributed (this includes modifications and derivatives) in the Netherlands unless the copyright has been reserved explicitly, either in a general manner by law, decree or ordinance, or in a specific case by a notice on the work itself or at the communication to the public. This is regulated in (Article 15b of Dutch copyright law of 1912). Entities like the Silicose Oud-mijnwerkers foundation can also be regarded as public authorities (AbRS 30 November 1995, JB 1995/337). This might imply that their publications are not automatically copyright protected. This arrest does not contain references to the copyright of such organizations and is in addition in general critized by prof. mr. SE Zijlstra in a note to the arrest.

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Laws, governmental provisions, bills, minutes, agreements, deliberations and opinions of public bodies and agencies and official translations of the previous texts are not subject to protection. The judgments of the courts can be reproduced by anyone, after they have been officially certified as the authentic text.[312/1999 Article 16]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP North Korea

North Korea

  • Documents for state management, current news or information data shall not be the object of copyright unless commercial purpose is pursued.[1532/2006 Article 12]
  • A "work whose publication, issuance, performance, broadcasting, show and exhibition is prohibited" is not protected by copyright.[1532/2006 Article 6]

The following are not considered to be copyright works: 1. Ideas, theories, concepts, operation methodologies, or mathematical concepts, regardless of the manner of explanation or expression; 2. Official texts of a political, legislative, administrative and judicial nature and their official translations; 3. Daily and other news having the character of mere media information, miscellaneous facts and data; and 4. Ideas and concepts which underlie any element of a computer program, including the program components that enable connection and interaction between the elements of the software and of the hardware equipment (interfaces).[2010 Art.16]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Norway

Norway

Under the Act No. 40 of June 15, 2018,

  • Laws, regulations, judicial decisions and other decisions by public authorities are without protection under this Act. The same applies to proposals, reports, statements and the like that apply to the exercise of public authority, and is issued by a public authority, a publicly appointed council or committee, or published by the public. Similarly, official translations of such texts are without protection under this Act.[2018 §14]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Palau

Palau

According to the Republic of Palau Copyright Act of 2003, in no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to the following:[2003 Sec.3(b)]

  • any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work;
  • official public legislative, administrative or legal texts, or any official translations thereof, and
  • speeches, lectures, addresses, and other oral works given by a government official in his or her official capacity.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Panama

Panama

Under Law No. 64 of 2012 no copyright protection is given to the ideas contained in literary or artistic works, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts, systems or ideas or technical content of scientific works, nor their industrial or commercial use; official texts of administrative, legislative or judicial nature or the official translations of them, without prejudice to the obligation to respect the texts and cite the source, as well as the author's name if it appears in the source; news of the day, or events that have the character of simple press information; simple facts or data; expressions of folklore, without prejudice to the rights recognized on their adaptations, translations, arrangements or other transformations that have originality in the form of expression, nor of the guardianship that is recognized to such expressions by special laws.[Article 13]

According to the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act 2000, there is no protection for

  • any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere date, whether expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work;[2000 Sec.5(a)]
  • any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature or any official translation thereof.[2000 Sec.5(b)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Paraguay

Paraguay

"The following shall not qualify for copyright protection: 1. the ideas contained in literary or artistic works, processes, operating methods or mathematical concepts per se, or the ideological or technical content of scientific works, or their industrial or commercial exploitation; 2. official texts of legislative, administrative or judicial character, or translations thereof, without prejudice to the obligation to respect the text and mention the source; 3. news of the day; 4. mere facts or data.[1328/1998 Article 8]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Peru

Peru

Previously, under the 1961 law, works passed into the public domain for: (a) folk songs by unknown authors (use {{PD-Peru-anonymous}} for anonymous text and media works published before 1981); (b) works that expired on the current term; (c) works by authors without heirs; (d) works by authors who have waived their copyright; (63) works by authors who died five years ago and real utilities were expropriated by the Ministry of Public Education without opposition from their heirs and editorials (use {{PD-Peru-organization}} for orphaned works of an author who died before 1988 and who was never claimed); (64) legal texts, decrees and publications of public authorities of State as Executive, Executive and Judicial Branches (use {{PD-Peru-organization}} for text and documents published before 1996); (65) informative news content.[13714/1961 Art. 62-65] (1) Ideological or technical content or that scientific work without industrial use.[13714/1961 Art. 1]

Under actual 1996 law, the following are not eligible for copyright protection: (a) the ideas contained in literary or artistic works, processes, operating methods or mathematical concepts in themselves, systems or the ideological or technical content of scientific works, or the industrial or commercial exploitation thereof; (b) official texts of legislative, administrative or judicial character, or official translations thereof, without prejudice to the obligation to respect the texts and mention the source (see Works by the Peruvian Government); (c) news of the day, provided that, in the case of word-for-word reproduction, the source from which it has been taken shall be mentioned; (d) simple facts or data.[822/1996 Art.9] Use {{PD-PE-exempt}}.

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Philippines

Philippines

No protection shall extend to any idea, procedure, system, method or operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data as such, even if they are expressed, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work; news of the day and other miscellaneous facts having the character of mere items of press information; or any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof.[8293/2015 Section 175]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Poland

Poland

Under the Consolidated 1994 Polish Copyright Law as of 2016, copyright protection does not cover:[1996–2016 Art.4]

  1. normative acts and drafts thereof as well as official documents
  2. official documents, materials, signs and symbols;
  3. published patent or protection descriptions;
  4. simple press information.

However in some instances the use of an image published by the government in Poland might be regulated by other laws. It is being debated if postage stamps and banknotes fall into this category. (See: {{PD-Polishsymbol}})

In the judgment of 27 February 2009 (V CSK 337/2008), the Supreme Court of Poland stated: "The official materials referred to in Article 4 §2 of the [Polish] Copyright Law Act should be understood as materials coming from an office or other institution performing public tasks."[14]

Additionally selected government websites publish content on Creative Commons license unless stated otherwise. As of 10 August 2015 ministerial websites had a following copyright status, free licenses are marked green:

List of ministries
  • Ministry of Digital Affairs - CC BY 3.0 PL
  • Ministry of Interior and Administration - no clear license
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development - © Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Culture and National Heritage - © Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Economy - CC BY SA 3.0
  • Ministry of Environment - © 1997-2012 Ministerstwo Środowisk - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Finance - © Copyrights Ministerstwo Finansów 2011-2012 - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs - © 2012 Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Health - © 2013 Ministerstwo Zdrowia - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Infrastructure and Development 2015 Ministerstwo Infrastruktury i Rozwoju - no copyright sign, no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Interior - ©1998-2014 Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Justice - © 2000-2015 Ministerstwo Sprawiedliwości - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Labour and Social Policy - no clear license
  • Ministry of National Defence - © Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej 2015
  • Ministry of National Education - no clear license
  • Ministry of Science and Higher Education - © 2015 Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of Sport and Tourism - © Ministerstwo Sportu i Turystyki 2015 - no dedicated copyright page
  • Ministry of State Treasury - © Ministerstwo Skarbu Państwa. Wszystkie prawa zastrzeżone.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Portugal

Portugal

Under the Code of Copyright and Related Rights (as amended up to Decree-Law No. 100/2017 of August 23, 2017),

  • There is no copyright protection for a) The news of the day and the reports of various events as simple information in any way disclosed; b) Applications, allegations, complaints and other texts submitted in writing or orally before public authorities or services; c) Proposed texts and speeches delivered to assemblies or other collegiate bodies, political, administrative, national, regional or local levels, or in public debates on matters of common interest; d) Political speeches.[100/2017 Art.7(1)]
  • Integral reproduction of speeches, oratory pieces and other texts referred to in sub-paragraphs c) and d) of paragraph 1 may only be made by the author or with his consent.[100/2017 Art.7(2)]
  • The use by a third party of work referred to in paragraph 1, when free, shall be limited to that required by the purpose to be achieved with its disclosure.[100/2017 Art.7(3)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Qatar

Qatar

The protection provided by this Law shall not cover the following works:

  • laws, legal provisions, administrative decisions, international treaties, official documents or any official translation thereof.[7/2002 Article 4(1)]
  • daily news and other news of mere informatory nature.[7/2002 Article 4(2)]
  • ideas, procedures, operational methods, mathematical concepts, principles and mere data.[7/2002 Article 4(3)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Romania

Romania

Under Law No. 8 of March 14, 1996 on Copyright and Neighboring Rights, the following shall not benefit from the legal protection accorded to copyright:[8/1996 Art.9]

(a) ideas, theories, concepts, scientific discoveries, proceedings, functioning methods or mathematical concepts as such and inventions, contained in a work, whatever the manner of the adoption, writing, explanation or expression thereof;
(b) official texts of a political, legislative, administrative or judicial nature, and official translations thereof;
(c) official symbols of the State, public authorities and organizations, such as armorial bearings, seals, flags, emblems, shields, badges and medals;
(d) means of payment;
(e) news and press information;
(f) simple facts and data.

Also, the photographs of letters, deeds, documents of any kind, technical drawings and other similar papers do not benefit from protection.[8/1996 Art.85(2)]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Samoa

Samoa

According to the Copyright Act 1998 (as consolidated in 2011), no protection shall extend to,

  • any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work.[1998–2011 Sec.5(a)]
  • any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof.[1998–2011 Sec.5(b)]

Under the Decree Law 02/2017, copyright protection does not apply to the following:[02/2017 Art.7]

  • News of the day and the reports of events that are simple information, however disclosed;
  • Applications, claims, complaints and written or oral submissions to authorities or public services
  • Proposed texts and speeches before assemblies or other collegial, political and administrative bodies at the national, regional or local level, or in public debates on issues of public interest;
  • Political speeches.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Under the Copyright Law (M/41 of 30 August 2003), protection does not cover the following[M/41/2003 Art. 4]:

  • Laws and Judicial judgments, decisions of administrative bodies, international agreements and all official documents, as well as the official translations thereof, subject to the provisions concerning the circulation of these documents.
  • What is published in newspapers, magazines and periodicals, or broadcasted in daily news or news-like events.
  • Ideas, procedures, work methods, concepts of mathematical sciences, axioms and abstract facts.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Serbia

Serbia

According to the 2009 Copyright Law of Serbia,

  • The protection of copyright shall not apply to general ideas, procedures and methods of operations or mathematical concepts as such, as well as concepts, principles and instructions included in a work of authorship.[104/2009 Art.6(1)]
  • The following shall not be deemed works of authorship: 1) Laws, decrees and other regulations; 2) Official materials of state bodies and bodies performing public functions; 3) Official translations of regulations and official materials of state bodies and bodies performing public functions; 4) Submissions and other documents presented in the administrative or court proceedings.[104/2009 Art.6(2)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Sint Maarten

Sint Maarten

Under the Author's Regulation of 1913 as amended 2006,

  • There is no copyright on laws, decisions and regulations issued by the public authorities, nor on judicial decisions and administrative decisions.[1913–2006 Art.11(1)]
  • There is also no copyright on what has been made public by or on behalf of the public authorities, unless that right, either in general by law, decree or regulation, or in a particular case as evidenced by communication on the work itself or when it is made public, reserved.[1913–2006 Art.11(2)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Slovakia

Slovakia

The following are not subject to copyright:[125/2016 Section 5]

  • Text of legislation, a decision of public authority or a court decision, technical standard, including draft materials and translations thereof
  • Land-use planning documents
  • State symbol, municipality symbol, symbol of self-governing region; this does not apply to a work which formed the basis for creating of such symbol,
  • Speech presented in discussions on public affairs
  • Daily news: information on events or circumstances. A work discussing daily news is not considered daily news
  • Work of traditional folk culture
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Slovenia

Slovenia

Under the Consolidated Copyright Act as of 2016,

  • There is no copyright protection for 1. ideas, principles, discoveries; 2. official texts of a legislative, administrative and judicial nature; 3. folk literary and artistic creations.[12/2016 Art.9(1)]
    According to a 2010 book, this also encompasses the national coat of arms, the municipal coats of arms, the anthem, urban planning maps, drawings of traffic signs, sketches and plans from the patent file after the official publication of the patent, and other similar material published due to a state jurisdiction as part of the official text, its annex or independently.[15]
  • Translations of texts mentioned hereby should enjoy copyright protection, unless they are published as official texts.[12/2016 Art.9(2)]
  • Certain photographs that are not an "individual intellectual creation of the photographer" are not protected. Trampuž specifically cites the following types of images:
    • automated routine photographs; specifically listed: photographic automates, traffic safety images, images taken as part of the technical protection of objects, meteorological and satellite photographs
    • routine photographs for documents
    • average amateur photographs
    • routine press photographs
These, however, can often become an author's work, which is judged from case to case.[16]

In numerous actual cases, they have also been recognised as copyrighted.[17]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP South Korea

South Korea

Under the Copyright Act (Act No. 432 of January 28, 1957, as amended up to Act No. 17588 of December 8, 2020), works that fall under any of the following are not protected by copyright.[3916/1987–2020 Article 7]

  • Constitution, laws, treaties, orders, ordinances and rules
  • Public notices, announcements, orders, and other similar matters by the State or local governments
  • Judgment, decision, order and trial or administrative trial procedure of the court, other resolutions, decisions, etc. through similar procedures
  • Compilation or translation of those stipulated in subparagraphs 1 through 3, prepared by the State or local government
  • News reports that only convey facts
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Spain

Spain

Intellectual property protection does not apply to laws and regulations and their corresponding projects, resolutions and acts of jurisdictional bodies, agreements, deliberations and opinions of public bodies, as well as official translations of all the previous texts.[1/1996-2018 Article 13]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Under Sri Lanka's Intellectual Property Act, No. 36 of 2003,

  • Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 6 and 7, no protection shall be extended under this Part (a) to any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work; (b) to any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof; (c) to news of the day published, broadcast, or publicly communicated by any other means.[36/2003 Section 8]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Suriname

Suriname

There is no copyright in general regulations as referred to in Article 2 of the Surinamese Constitution, issued by public power, nor in judgments and administrative decisions.[23/1981 Article 11]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Switzerland

Switzerland

Copyright does not protect acts, ordinances, international treaties and other official enactments; means of payment; decisions, minutes and reports issued by authorities and public administrations; patent specifications and published patent applications. Copyright also does not protect official or legally required collections and translations of the works referred to in paragraph 1.[1992-2017 Art.5]

To be eligible for copyright in the first place, works must be literary or artistic intellectual creations with an individual character, irrespective of their value or purpose.[1992-2017 Art.2] Exceptionally, photographs of three-dimensional objects are protected as works even in the absence of individuality (see Commons:Copyright rules by territory/Switzerland#TOO for details).

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Syria

Syria

Under Legislative Decree No. 62/2013, there is no protection for[62/2013 Art. 4]:

  • Ideas, procedures, methods of work, mathematical concepts, principles, abstract facts, discoveries and data, but protection applies to the innovative expression of any of them.
  • Heavenly books except their designs and style of writing and recordings of recitations.
  • Laws, regulations, judicial decisions, arbitral tribunal rules, international agreements, administrative decisions and other official documents and official translations thereof.
  • News and other events that are characterized as mere press information.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Taiwan

Taiwan

According to the Copyright Act as amended on 30 November 2016, The following items shall not be the subject matter of copyright:[2016 Art.9]

  1. The constitution, acts, regulations, or official documents.
  2. Translations or compilations by central or local government agencies of works referred to in the preceding subparagraph.
  3. Slogans and common symbols, terms, formulas, numerical charts, forms, notebooks, or almanacs.
  4. Oral and literary works for news reports that are intended strictly to communicate facts.
  5. Test questions and alternative test questions from all kinds of examinations held pursuant to acts or regulations.

The term "official documents" in the first subparagraph of the preceding paragraph includes proclamations, text of speeches, news releases, and other documents prepared by civil servants in the course of carrying out their duties.[2016 Art.9]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Thailand

Thailand

The following are not deemed copyright works:

  • News of the day and facts having the character of mere information, not being works in the literary, scientific or artistic fields;[2537/1994 Sec.7(1)]
  • The constitution and legislation;[2537/1994 Sec.7(2)]
  • Regulations, bylaws, notifications, orders, explanations and official correspondence of the Ministries, Departments or any other government or local units;[2537/1994 Sec.7(3)]
  • Judicial decisions, orders, decisions and official reports;[2537/1994 Sec.7(4)]
  • Translations and collections of the materials referred to above, made by the Ministries, Departments or any other government or local units.[2537/1994 Sec.7(5)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Tajikistan

Tajikistan

Under the the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (as amended up to 2009), the following are not covered by copyright: official documents (laws, court decisions, other texts of legislative, administrative and judicial nature), as well as their official translations; state symbols and signs (flag, coat of arms, anthem, the Order, the national currency and other public signs); communications concerning events and fact of informational nature; works of folklore.[2009 Article 7]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Tonga

Tonga

Copyright protection does not apply to any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, or any official translation thereof.[2002 Sec.5]

There is no copyright protection for any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof; or political speeches and speeches delivered in the course of legal proceedings.

However, collections of such texts or speeches may be protected if they are original by reason of the selection, co-ordination or arrangement of their contents.[5/2008 Section 7]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Turkey

Turkey

The reproduction, distribution, adaptation or exploitation in any other form of laws, by­laws, regulations, notifications, circulars and court decisions that have been officially published or announced is permitted.[5846/1951 Article 31]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

Under Law No. 257-IV of January 10, 2012, works not subject to copyright are:[2012 Article 7]

  • Official documents (laws, court decisions, other texts of a legislative, administrative and judicial nature), as well as their official translations;
  • State symbols and signs (flag, emblem, anthem, awards, banknotes and other state symbols and signs);
  • Folk art (expressions of folklore);
  • Messages about events and facts that have an informational nature.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Uganda

Uganda

Ideas, concepts, procedures, methods or other things of a similar nature shall not be protected by copyright under this Act.[2006 Section 6]

There is no copyright in the following works:[2006 Section 7]

  • enactments, including Acts, statutes, decrees, statutory instruments and other laws made by the Legislature or other authorised bodies;
  • decrees, orders and other decisions by courts of law for the administration of justice and any official translations from them;
  • reports made by committees or commissions of inquiry appointed by the Government or any agency of the Government;
  • news of the day, namely, reports of fresh events or current information by the media whether published in a written form, broadcast, internet or communicated to the public by any other means.
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Ukraine

Ukraine

Under Law No. 3792-XII of December 23, 1993 (as amended up to April 26, 2017), protection does not extend to:[3792-XII/199-2017 Art.10]

  • Daily news or current events that constitute regular press information
  • Works of folk art (folklore);
  • Official documents issued by government authorities of a political, legislative or administrative nature (laws, decrees, regulations, court decisions and state standards, etc.) and their official translations;
  • State symbols of Ukraine, government awards; symbols and signs of government, the Armed Forces of Ukraine and other military formations; symbols of territorial communities; symbols and signs of enterprises, institutions and organizations;
  • Banknotes;
  • Timetables of vehicles, broadcasts, schedules, telephone directories and other similar databases that do not meet the originality criteria;

Under Federal Law No. 7 of 2002 protection does not extend to:

  • Mere ideas, procedures, methods of work, mathematical understandings, principles, and abstract facts, but extends to creative expression in any of them.[7/2002 Article 3]
  • Official documents, whatever their original language or the language they are translated to, such as the texts of laws, regulations, decisions, international agreements, judgments, arbitrators’ awards and the decisions of the administrative committees having judicial competence.[7/2002 Article 3(1)]
  • News, events and current facts, which constitute merely media news.[7/2002 Article 3(2)]
  • Works transferred to public property.[7/2002 Article 3(3)]
Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

The following are not objects of copyright: official documents (laws, regulations, decisions, etc.), as well as their official translations; official symbols and signs (flags, emblems, orders, banknotes, etc.); Folk products; reports on current events daily news or messages that are regular press information.[LRU-476/2018 Article 8]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Venezuela

Venezuela

The texts of laws, decrees, official regulations, public treaties, judicial decisions and other official acts are not protected.[1993 Article 4]

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Vietnam

Vietnam

The following subject matters are not protected by copyright:[36/2009 Article 15]

  1. News of the day as mere items of press information. This means daily news briefs which are merely of informatory nature and contain no creative elements.[18]
  2. Legal documents, administrative documents and other documents in the judicial domain and official translations of these documents.
    • Legislative documents include:[19][80/2015 Article 4]
The system of Vietnam's legislative documents
  1. The Constitution.
  2. Codes and Laws (hereinafter referred to as Laws), Resolutions of the National Assembly
  3. Ordinances, Resolutions of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly; Joint Resolutions between the Standing Committee of the National Assembly and the Management Board of Central Committee of Vietnamese Fatherland Front; Joint Resolutions between the Standing Committee of the National Assembly, the Government, the Management Board of Central Committee of Vietnamese Fatherland Front.[20][21]
  4. Orders, Decisions of the President.
  5. Decrees of the Government; Joint Resolutions between the Government and Management Board of Central Committee of Vietnamese Fatherland Front
  6. Decision of the Prime Minister.
  7. Resolutions of Judge Council of the People’s Supreme Court.
  8. Circulars of the Executive Judge of the People’s Supreme Court; Circulars of the Chief Procurator of the Supreme People’s Procuracy; Circulars of Ministers, Heads of ministerial agencies; Decisions of the State Auditor General.
    8a. Joint Circulars between the Executive Judge of the People’s Supreme Court, the Chief Procurator of the Supreme People’s Procuracy, the State Auditor General, Ministers, Heads of ministerial agencies. Joint Circulars between Ministers and Heads of ministerial agencies shall not be promulgated.[20]
  9. Resolutions of the People’s Councils of central-affiliated cities and provinces (hereinafter referred to as provinces).
  10. Decisions of the People’s Committees of provinces.
  11. Legislative documents of local governments in administrative - economic units.
  12. Resolutions of the People’s Councils of districts, towns and cities within provinces (hereinafter referred to as districts).
  13. Decisions of the People’s Committees of districts.
  14. Resolutions of the People’s Councils of communes, wards and towns within districts (hereinafter referred to as communes).
  15. Decisions of the People’s Committees of communes.
  • "Administrative documents" include regulations, announcements, guidelines, programs, plans, projects, reports, contracts, memorandums, agreements, invitations, sick leave, etc.[22][23] These are issued by state agencies, political organizations, socio-political organizations, socio-political-professional organizations, social organizations, socio-professional organizations, and people's armed forces units.[Decree No. 22/2018 Article 19]
  1. Processes, systems, operation methods, concepts, principles and data.

Note that the term "document" (translated from Vietnamese term văn bản) here means "written information communicated by means of language or sign"[23][Decree 30/2020 Article 3] and hence does not include images, logos or emblems of any kind. The official format of an administrative document includes signature and seals,[Decree 30/2020 Article 8] so it is assumed that signatures on government papers should be in the public domain.

Text transcluded from
COM:NOP Yemen

Yemen

Yemeni works not protected:[15/2012 Article 5]

  • Ideas, procedures, work methods, operations modes, concepts, principles and data even if expressed or described or clarified or inserted in a work.
  • Official documents such as laws, regulations, government decisions texts of laws, government decisions, regulations, judicial verdicts, international agreements, all official documents and their official translations.
  • The news about incidents or events which are merely media descriptive material.
  • Works that have fallen into the public domain.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Some citation text may not have been transcluded
  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Minedu99711
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  3. Bundesgerichtshof 20 July 2006, case I ZR 185/03 Bodenrichtwertsammlung, (2007) 109 GRUR 137 [13].
  4. Bundesgerichtshof 20 July 2006, case I ZR 185/03 Bodenrichtwertsammlung, (2007) 109 GRUR 137 [14].
  5. P Katzenberger and A Metzger, "§ 5" in U Loewenheim, M Leistner, and A Ohly (eds), Schricker/Loewenheim: Urheberrecht (6th edn, Beck 2020) para 46; C Arnold, Amtliche Werke im Urheberrecht: Zur Verfassungsmäßigkeit und analogen Anwendbarkeit des § 5 UrhG (Nomos 1994) 94; MCG Marquardt, "§ 5" in A-A Wandtke and W Bullinger (eds), Praxiskommentar zum Urheberrecht (5th edn, Beck 2019) para 12.
  6. Landgericht Berlin 27 March 2012, case 15 O 377/11 Loriot-Briefmarken, (2012) 16 ZUM-RD 399, 402. In the same vein: T Dreier, "§ 5" in T Dreier and G Schulze (eds), Urheberrechtsgesetz (6th edn, Beck 2018) para 4 ("written works"); H Ahlberg, "§ 5" in H Ahlberg and K Nicolini (eds), Möhring/Nicolini: Urheberrechtsgesetz (2nd edn, Vahlen 2000) para 10.
  7. JB Nordemann, "§ 5" in A Nordemann, JB Nordemann, and C Czychowski (eds), Fromm/Nordemann: Urheberrecht (12th edn, Kohlhammer 2018) para 10. See also P Katzenberger and A Metzger, "§ 5" in U Loewenheim, M Leistner, and A Ohly (eds), Schricker/Loewenheim: Urheberrecht (6th edn, Beck 2020) para 68 (sub-§ 1 applicable to official road signs as they are part of a law). Cf C Arnold, Amtliche Werke im Urheberrecht: Zur Verfassungsmäßigkeit und analogen Anwendbarkeit des § 5 UrhG (Nomos 1994) 104 (sub-§ 1 limited to "texts", which also includes at least illustrations of a scientific or technical nature).
  8. On those, see COM:CUR Germany.
  9. Landgericht Berlin 27 March 2012, case 15 O 377/11 Loriot-Briefmarken, (2012) 16 ZUM-RD 399, 402; H Ahlberg, "§ 5" in H Ahlberg and K Nicolini (eds), Möhring/Nicolini: Urheberrechtsgesetz (2nd edn, Vahlen 2000) para 14; P Katzenberger and A Metzger, "§ 5" in U Loewenheim, M Leistner, and A Ohly (eds), Schricker/Loewenheim: Urheberrecht (6th edn, Beck 2020) para 68; EI Obergfell, "§ 5" in W Büscher, S Dittmer, and P Schiwy (eds), Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz, Urheberrecht, Medienrecht (3rd edn, Heymann 2015) para 19; G Dreyer, "§ 5" in G Dreyer and others (eds), Heidelberger Kommentar Urheberrecht (4th edn, CF Müller 2018) para 20; H-P Götting and U Loewenheim, "§ 31" in U Loewenheim (ed), Handbuch des Urheberrechts (2nd edn, Beck 2010) para 10; D Leuze, Urheberrechte der Beschäftigten im öffentlichen Dienst (3rd edn, Erich Schmidt 2008) 40; D Dünnwald, Der Urheber im öffentlichen Dienst (Nomos 1999) 133; H Schack, Urheber- und Urhebervertragsrecht (8th edn, Mohr Siebeck 2017) para 581; H Schack, Kunst und Recht (3rd edn, Mohr Siebeck 2017) para 276; M von Albrecht, Amtliche Werke und Schranken des Urheberrechts zu amtlichen Zwecken in fünfzehn europäischen Ländern (VVF 1992) 52; G Schricker, "Zum Urheberrechtsschutz und Geschmacksmusterschutz von Postwertzeichen – Teil II" (1991) 93 GRUR 645, 647ff; P Katzenberger, "Die Frage des urheberrechtlichen Schutzes amtlicher Werke" (1972) 74 GRUR 686, 694. Note that for those who believe that § 5(1) is incapable of applying to non-literary works to begin with (see above for references), this is a simple corollary. Contra Landgericht München 10 March 1987, case 21 S 20861/86, (1987) 89 GRUR 436, 436f (stating that "the postage stamp has lost the copyright protection it enjoyed during the drafting stage when it was included in the Official Journal of the Minister of Post and Telecommunications"); M Rehbinder and A Peukert, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte (18th edn, Beck 2018) para 496 (stating that privately created works can also constitute official works, giving the example of "officially announced stamps, as opposed to commemorative stamps"); J von Ungern-Sternberg, "Werke privater Urheber als amtliche Werke" (1977) 79 GRUR 766, 768 (because "postage stamps of the Bundespost are announced with pictures some time prior to their issuance in the Official Journal of the Minister of Post and Telecommunications" and are therefore in the public domain as part of an official notice).
  10. H Ahlberg, "§ 5" in H Ahlberg and K Nicolini (eds), Möhring/Nicolini: Urheberrechtsgesetz (2nd edn, Vahlen 2000) para 14; P Katzenberger and A Metzger, "§ 5" in U Loewenheim, M Leistner, and A Ohly (eds), Schricker/Loewenheim: Urheberrecht (6th edn, Beck 2020) para 68; D Dünnwald, Der Urheber im öffentlichen Dienst (Nomos 1999) 133. J von Ungern-Sternberg ("Werke privater Urheber als amtliche Werke" (1977) 79 GRUR 766, 768) seems to consider coats of arms official works pursuant to § 5(2) rather than § 5(1). Again, for those who believe that § 5(1) is incapable of applying to non-literary works to begin with (see above for references), this is a simple corollary.
  11. JB Nordemann, "§ 5" in A Nordemann, JB Nordemann, and C Czychowski (eds), Fromm/Nordemann: Urheberrecht (12th edn, Kohlhammer 2018) para 15; MCG Marquardt, "§ 5" in A-A Wandtke and W Bullinger (eds), Praxiskommentar zum Urheberrecht (5th edn, Beck 2019) para 7; EI Obergfell, "§ 5" in W Büscher, S Dittmer, and P Schiwy (eds), Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz, Urheberrecht, Medienrecht (3rd edn, Heymann 2015) para 8; P Katzenberger and A Metzger, "§ 5" in U Loewenheim, M Leistner, and A Ohly (eds), Schricker/Loewenheim: Urheberrecht (6th edn, Beck 2020) paras 68f.
  12. MCG Marquardt, "§ 5" in A-A Wandtke and W Bullinger (eds), Praxiskommentar zum Urheberrecht (5th edn, Beck 2019) para 7; P Katzenberger and A Metzger, "§ 5" in U Loewenheim, M Leistner, and A Ohly (eds), Schricker/Loewenheim: Urheberrecht (6th edn, Beck 2020) para 68; T Dreier, "§ 5" in T Dreier and G Schulze (eds), Urheberrechtsgesetz (6th edn, Beck 2018) para 8. Contra EI Obergfell, "§ 5" in W Büscher, S Dittmer, and P Schiwy (eds), Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz, Urheberrecht, Medienrecht (3rd edn, Heymann 2015) para 8 (who argues that they fall under sub-§ 2).
  13. Bundesgerichtshof 2 July 1987, case I ZR 232/85 Topographische Landeskarten, (1988) 41 NJW 337, 338f.
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Scourt2013
  15. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Bogatajetal2010
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Trampuž1997
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Semlič2002
  18. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Decree2018
  19. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Law80/2015
  20. a b Updated according to Law No. 63/2020/QH14 dated June 18, 2020 Amendments to the Law on Promulgation of Legislative Documents
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Law63/2020
  22. Full list: "nghị quyết (cá biệt), quyết định (cá biệt), chỉ thị, quy chế, quy định, thông cáo, thông báo, hướng dẫn, chương trình, kế hoạch, phương án, đề án, dự án, báo cáo, biên bản, tờ trình, hợp đồng, công văn, công điện, bản ghi nhớ, bản thỏa thuận, giấy ủy quyền, giấy mời, giấy giới thiệu, phiếu gửi, phiếu chuyển, phiếu báo, thư công".
  23. a b Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Decree30/2020